Once again I jumped in with both feet before determining how deep it was! When farm managers become aware of the potential profits that can be claimed by a small change in management they often want to know the details. Mineral deficiencies can be corrected by: The last is a satisfactory method under most conditions, but some animals will over-consume minerals, while others may eat less than they need. Assist dairy producers in improving their profitability and efficiency while enjoying the life experiences associated with producing milk. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Split feeding is ideal. When low-energy growing rations are used, urea may need to be limited to not over half of the protein value in the supplement for best economy. Calves ranging in age from 1 day to 12 weeks old have different nutritional needs, and calf starter needs are no exception. These timely themes deliver information relevant to forage producers and other forage professionals to help them be more successful and profitable in their areas of operation. In most cases, rate and consistency of gain have been slightly in favor of minimum roughage rather than all-concentrate rations. After each calf is removed, calf hutches should be cleaned and moved to a new location to control the spread of potential diseases. This equates to 2.07 to 2.24 pounds of corn per pound of finished animal. Stress Care ® 5 Supplement: This pelleted calf supplement is designed to deliver a potent dose of essential nutrients for stressed cattle in a small inclusion package (5 pounds per head per day). Increasing grain methods require not only a feel for changes in intake and increases in grain levels, but adjustments in forages and supplements too. We do not feed all of our cows 9 pounds a … All of the supplemental protein may be furnished by urea with good results when high-energy finishing rations are fed. Set a routine for giving the calf starter by refilling the feed pan after it has finished its milk replacer. Block. The rations in this guide have been designed to account for the weight of the fetus and calf … As the calf gets older, one feed per day is acceptable – preferably in the morning with access to plenty of cool, clean water thereafter. Grain sorghum should be coarsely milled. What does this tell me about the amount of grain I want my heifers to be eating when I pull them fully off milk? Beware of high-quality legume hay such as lucerne; it can cause bloat, especially in a hungry animal. Note in the table above, in the winter column all the values are greater than five pounds. Help improve lives, communities and economies throughout the state. Save Share. The daily intake will continue to grow. Full feed will be whatever he can eat in 15 to 20 minutes, (just a rule of thumb). Problems associated with all-concentrate rations include reduced energy intake, founder and other digestive problems, parakeratosis of the rumen wall, and greater incidence of liver abscesses. Grain can be very effectively … A 600 lb. But don’t stop quite yet, she will have a calf and that changes the math! The daily protein requirements of cattle and the percentage of protein needed in the ration are given in NRC tables. Grain should be equally divided between feedings. Your calf should gain about 2 pounds per day if you feed it 1.5 percent of its body weight per day of a quality grain ration. Use of urea or other NPN compounds can often reduce protein costs. There are guidelines on how much grain a calf should be eating in order to have a functional rumen and be weaned. A deficiency might occur in winter during long periods of cloudy weather. High-moisture milo or corn should be ground or rolled before it is fed. Also, it is cleared for heifers fed in confinement for slaughter. But, there is a delicate balance. Most processing methods improve the value of milo more than they do that of corn. When they are eating two pounds of grain daily, that is a good time to reduce the amount of milk they are receiving. ( bottle 3 times daily ) but in the last three says, it cant/wont eat even tho it wants to. Feed your calf corn that is whole kernel or very coarsely . Cattle on pasture or those fed high-roughage rations have gained an average of 0.2 pounds more a head daily and had about a 15 percent improvement in feed efficiency when fed Rumensin®. It just seems like a lot of grain and money for a cow that is not pregnant or in milk. The most common feed grains are corn and oats. meters per calf. How much to feed a heifer? ! As more of the calves start eating and all the feed is cleared up, the quantity can be increased every few days by between 0.25 and 0.5 kg per head until the desired level is … Free choice of long stemmed grass hay is OK, but if your goal is maximum gain, it's all about dry matter intake. This is because farmers have come from a long tradition of offering calves 2L of milk or milk replacer per calf per feed. Rumensin® has reduced feed intake with little change in rate of gain for cattle fed high-grain rations. The magazine is published monthly with a sizeable portion of articles unique to Canadians. While there might be a slight variation, the grain amount you should start with is 1.10 lbs per head per day. This will lead to an increased concentrate intake and avoid a slump in growth rate after weaning. ! The recommendation I have used is 3 pounds of hay for each 100 lbs of weight. - Progressive Dairy The best option is to turn both your cow and the calf loose on a high-quality pasture and allow them to graze as desired. Increase grain amounts slowly. Missouri cattle feeders can obtain the services of a computer for ration computation through the MU Extension. © Copyright 2020 Progressive Dairy. Just how much hay does a cow eat? Dried distillers grains can be fed as a creep feed ingredient up to 50% of the diet. A typical daily diet consists of 11 pounds alfalfa hay, 6 pounds rolled barley and 1 pound of a commercially prepared supplement. When feeding milk replacer, consider the age of the calf you are feeding. Urea and other non-protein nitrogen compounds can be used to replace part of the protein in ruminant rations. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. All of a sudden, feeding brome hay isn’t enough. Sweet Mag. Grain needs to be fed daily. Some experienced feeders use larger amounts of wheat successfully. In politics the truth is just the lie you believe most - unknown. Some examples of beef cattle rations for different feeding and management systems are given in Tables 1 and 2. yearling will be on feed 133 days to reach 1,150 lbs. This is where the art of starting calves come in. Question. The dollars generated from the 60 pounds due to creep feed is $111.60 (60 lb of calf gain due … Rate of gain was improved 10.3 percent and feed efficiency 6.5 percent in an average of 47 trials. Research is challenging old paradigms on heifer reproduction. Feeds like corn, oats, distillers grains, corn gluten feed, soy hulls, high-quality hays, high-quality protein source can be used. Watch for respiratory problems, especially during the first few days. There are “book values” for forages and grains, and this is a good way to get a ballpark for nutritional value. Synovex® has a separate implant for steers, heifers and calves under 400 pounds. Start with no more than one-third of the ration as grain, such as 600 lb. so there is a need for high-quality feeds to keep the calf growing. calf corn that is whole kernel or very coarsely Then your 170-pound calf will need to consume in the neighborhood of seven to eight pounds of grain daily. How Many Pounds Of Grain Should A Beef Cow Eat Per Day. Beef Cattle Non-lactating Dairy. The desire to feed higher levels has been tempered by concurrent increases in the prices of corn coproducts. It is recognized that feed per 100 pounds of grain is reduced considerably, thus possibly lowering production costs. Processing appears to have some value for dry-shelled corn in rations with 20 percent or more roughage content, or when corn is very dry, less than 12 percent moisture. Recall this is to gain one pound a day. per head per day (3 lbs. How much grain do you feed your cows? 50 lb. Divide the hay produced per acre by how much she eats per day and you’ll get how many cows you can feed on your land per acre per year. ! None. Because this article was so popular, we asked Sam Leadley a follow-up question: Q: Why do you think this topic was of interest to producers in 2011? Each issue of Progressive Forage contains articles which focus on a particular topic area within the forage industry. Growth stimulants implanted beneath the skin behind the ear include Compudose®, Ralgro®, Synovex®, Steer-oid®, Heifer-oid® and Finaplex-S®. Calves less than four weeks of age cannot digest the same ingredients as older animals. Creep feeding does not reduce lactation pressure of the dam like one … 4% All Stock Block. It is essential to practice good hygiene at all times whilst rearing calves. Feeding grain is best done by dividing the total daily fed into a morning and evening feeding program. Even though she will eat more, there’s probably not enough nutrition in the grass hay. Grains are deficient in calcium but nearly adequate in phosphorus. Grams per ton of s in feed cattle feeding frequently asked how much hay does a cow eat countryside . This is because fewer pounds of the high-energy ration are needed daily to meet the animal's energy requirement, but the protein need stays the same. I would start with 6 lbs. Your calf should gain about 2 pounds per day if you feed it 1.5 percent of its body weight per day of a The most common feed grains are corn and oats. TAGS: Cow-Calf. Improvement from antibiotics can be expected to vary greatly with different groups of cattle and feedlot conditions. Formulating a ration is a matter of combining feeds to make a ration that will be eaten in the amount needed to supply the daily nutrient requirements of the animal. How To Correctly Calculate Grams Per Ton Of S In Feed For Your. The price of grains should be compared with their nutritive value to select those to feed. An extra pound of gain took 7.4 pounds of supplement. How much more grain does the 170-pound heifer need to eat to grow to gain one pound a day in warm weather? per head per day. :lookout: Mary . © 1993 to document.write(new Date().getFullYear()) Curators of the University of Missouri, all rights reserved, DMCA and other copyright information. As an example, if the forage were 55% TDN and lactating cows on the average weigh 1,200 pounds, the… There are guidelines on how much grain a calf should be eating in order to have a functional rumen and be weaned. The best option is to turn both your cow and the calf loose on a high-quality pasture and allow them to graze as desired. Implants have increased rate of gain by 8 to 15 percent and improved feed efficiency by 6 to 10 percent when cattle were fed growing and finishing rations. Selenium may be deficient for cattle and sheep in grains, crop wastes, fescue and other grasses grown on certain Missouri soils. With the possible exception of whole shelled corn, a higher level of management is needed to make this system work under feedlot conditions. If you’re anything like me, sometimes farming can consume you. Milk Feeding Options For the first two weeks of life, calves receive most of their nutrition from milk. … A larger percentage of protein is needed in rations with higher energy density. Non-protein nitrogen compounds are converted to protein by bacteria in the rumen. How Much Feed … Steer Weight % of body weight eaten per day approximate feed amounts 500 3% 12 lbs grain 3 lbs hay 800 3% 20 lbs grain 4 lbs hay 1100 2.5% 24 lbs grain 4 lbs hay HAIR CARE Comb your calf as much as possible. Continue to offer salt, water, and alfalfa. 50 lb. Type 2 or more characters into the input search below for suggested results, use up and down arrow keys to navigate through suggest box. Beef Cattle Non-lactating Dairy Mature Horses Sheep & Goat. As an example, if it were determined the daily dry matter intake of a group of 1,200 pound cow eating an average quality hay is 24 pounds per head and the hay that they are consuming is 88% dry matter, these cows would consume about 27 (24 pounds/.88) pounds per head per day on an as-fed basis. As a rule, a beef animal consumes up to 3kg of feed a day for each 100kg of body weight. Cattle on full feed usually gain faster and require less feed energy for a pound of gain when they consume high-energy rations. In addition, the value of needed minerals, vitamins and other additives has a bearing on choices. You don’t want to overfeed calf starter to younger … Since grain sorghum has a lower energy content than corn, expect … per head per feeding) adding 2 lbs. $400 divided by 2,000 pounds in a ton= $0.20 per pound for hay $0.20 x 26 = $5.20 per day in hay costs Whole vs. ground dry-shelled cornDry, whole shelled corn has been equal or slightly superior to ground or rolled corn in high-concentrate beef cattle rations in many recent trials. It is easy to see that none of the values in the table are anywhere near two pounds of grain. How much growth in a 170-pound heifer will two pounds of starter grain support? Adding dry rolled corn or whole shelled corn to high-moisture milo rations improved the performance of cattle. An exception would be a need for B vitamins in the receiving ration of stressed feeder cattle. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. Will weather make a difference? Do you feed as much as he will eat of the corn/grain? This monthly publication is tailored for all segments of the beef industry and will consistently provide compelling features and photography, timely news, expert industry voices and entertaining commentary. Scours. That leaves less for growth if the amount fed is fixed. per head per day 1-2 lb. per day will be on feed 167 days to reach 1,100 lbs., while a 750 lb. Most rations fed to beef cattle in Missouri are adequate in vitamin E. Adding two to five IU of vitamin E per pound of high-grain rations devoid of leafy roughages has increased feedlot cattle performance in a few Corn Belt trials, but not in others. When the milk ration is cut in half, the experience of many calf raisers is that grain intake grows dramatically the next three to five days. Melengestrol AcetateMGA® is a hormone material added to the ration of feedlot heifers. Normally, feeding 15,000 to 30,000 IU of vitamin A per head daily will supply ample vitamin A for feedlot cattle. Are you really serious about getting gains around two pounds a day? Related: Hay stocks are short, causing concern for fall-winter feed supplies As we crunch the numbers and double-check our feed resources to make sure we have enough hay to feed our cows through the winter, there are a few important factors to think about. 50 lb. Calves ranging in age from 1 day to 12 weeks old have different nutritional needs, and calf starter needs are no exception. Choose a high-quality feed, like hay, grain, or straw, and work with a veterinarian to decide on a feeding schedule and feed rations. block. Calves can come from a variety of sources with very different previous feed and nutritional management. Rations for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle. Improvement from high-moisture processing of shelled corn has been less and more variable. A. Even in warm weather she will not even maintain her weight when she is eating only two pounds grain a day. The numbers change when she has a calf! However, processing high-moisture corn in rations that have less than 15 percent roughage is questionable. View all agriculture and environment programs, Starting a Small Business: The First Steps, Agricultural systems and natural resources, Agricultural Business and Policy Extension, Veterinary Extension and Continuing Education, Exceed - Regional Economic and Entrepreneurial Development, Mid-America Trade Adjustment Assistance Center, Missouri Procurement Technical Assistance Centers, Missouri Small Business Development Centers, Continuing Medical Education and Physician Lifelong Learning, Tai Chi for Arthritis and Falls Prevention, equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer, Grain (1 pound per 100 pounds body weight), Ground shelled corn (1-1.5 Pounds per 100 pounds body weight), Mixing a good source of the missing or deficient minerals into a complete ration, Adding minerals to the protein supplement. April 26, 2020 - by Wandi - Leave a Comment. Compudose® has been cleared for steers. Calves will eat up to 2.5 to 3 percent of body weight in feed each day. Calf starter should be offered as free choice by placing the grain in a feed pan in the calf's pen and allowing the calf to choose when and how much it wants to eat. Feeding Market Beef. Injecting new feeder cattle with vitamin E may reduce the incidence and severity of sickness in the starting phase. If the cost of the creep feed is $300 per ton ($0.15/lb), the cost of feed to put on the 60 pounds of weight is $54 (360 pounds of creep feed x $0.15 = $54). For those of us with a little silver and gray atop our noggins, or in my case when my hair turned gray and turned loose at about the same time, we’re very familiar with the old paradigms that heifers need to be at 65% … Vitamin D additions are normally unnecessary in the ration if animals are exposed to sunlight. 6-1/2 oz. The major mineral considerations in cattle rations are calcium, phosphorus, potassium and salt. The award-winning magazine's editors and contributors provide compelling features, helpful articles, insightful news analysis, and entertaining commentary about the people, practices and topics related to a dairy lifestyle. Create an open forum of discussion and an easy-to-read magazine of expert information about the U.S. dairy industry. Not only will this help calm him but it will keep his hair coat and skin healthy. Low bypass protein, those highly degradable in the rumen, include soybean meal, corn gluten feed and alfalfa hay. 6% Mineral. Want to get about 6 bottle fed calves how much time per. 1) Rations use high-quality feeds: The rumen of this weight of calf is small. —Sam Leadley, Calf Management Consultant, Attica Veterinary Associates, [See the full list of the Top 25 articles of 2011. University of Missouri Extension is an equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer. When weaning calves, gradually reduce the volume fed over seven-to-10 days. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. Alfalfa and other legumes are high in calcium. milled. Generally, cows should be supplemented with corn in small amounts (0.25% of body weight or less). There are guidelines on how much grain a calf should be eating in order to have a functional rumen and be weaned. Liquid and dry urea supplements appear to be equal in value for beef cattle. January retail dairy sales maintain strength When fed with grass hay or silage, high-grain rations require more calcium than phosphorus supplementation to correct deficiencies and keep the calcium-phosphorus ratio between 1:1 and 2:1. Bonemeal and dicalcium phosphate supply both calcium and phosphorus. Feeding Market Beef. MGA® may be combined with Rumensin or Bovatec in supplements or rations offered to heifers. We also used an average animal in the example above with 50 bushels of corn fed. ! Feeding and Managing Baby Calves from Birth to 3 Months of Age Donna M. Amaral-Phillips, Patty B. Scharko, John T. Johns, and Sharon Franklin As the future productive units of a dairy herd, heif-ers represent a substantial financial investment in feed and labor. To avoid potential health issues, distillers grains should be limited to 30% of intake on a dry-matter basis. Good hay, some grain, should have a castrated Dexter calf gaining very well as he grows towards a processing size. Depending on how heavy the cattle are when they start their finishing ration, the larger cattle (~900 lbs) are only in the feedlot for 15 to 30 days, whereas the smaller cattle (weanlings ~750 lbs) are in for the average 100 days. As corn prices rise a common question among cattle feeders is, How much can I feed?. As heifers get larger and live in colder environments, maintenance needs go up. A mixture of six parts ground shelled corn and one part urea is approximately equal in energy and protein equivalent to seven pounds of a 44 percent supplement. block. Depending on herd size, and level of grain being fed, a variety of delivery and handling methods can be used, including pails, loaders, feed wagons, and a variety of home built and commercial feed dispensing hoppers. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. This mass is lost the day the calf is born. day would it take for them any help would be great Thanks. Another option is to feed feeder cattle a mixture of roughage and grains. A. ! I was speaking with a gentleman and he said that cows need at least 9 pounds of grain per day. This is because the starch of milo is less digestible. The cow needs 26 pounds of hay per day when she is feeding a calf. This is due to a larger daily energy intake on this type of ration, which results in a larger percentage of the daily energy being left for gain after body maintenance requirements have been met. But if you were feeding out a steer or bull of course they would eat much more than this towards the end. of grain. Provide clean cereal … A square bale isn’t going to last very long at that rate! As a calf raiser, it’s your job to avoid wasting feed and help improve calf growth performance. Use our feedback form for questions or comments about this publication. Once your calf is 90 days old, he will require additional nutrition other than what is provided by his mother's milk. Both are effective for steers and heifers fed growing or finishing rations. A: I believe most of us have fallen into the trap of “same old, same old” when it comes to feeding grain to weaned calves. per sheep or goat per month. Mixture of grainsFeeding a combination of grains or feeding a dry grain with a high-moisture grain can reduce acidosis and improve gain and feed efficiency about 5 percent. Cattle may be placed on feed by feeding 1.5 percent of body weight the first day … Not 10% per feeding, because you can over-feed … Cost per unit of protein should be the primary consideration when buying protein supplements for cattle. Reducing milk intake is intended to encourage the calf to consume solid feed which … Creep supplements are usually fed at 1–1.5% of calf body weight per day. Community Answer. Not Helpful 4 Helpful 34. Grams per ton of s in feed cattle feeding frequently asked how much hay does a cow eat countryside. Therefore, an appropriate receiving diet and adaptation period is important. That is the question. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. Progressive Cattle magazine captures the essence of the cattle producer and ranching experience. April 26, 2020 - by Wandi - Leave a Comment. Small amounts of hay will complement the grain ration for these eight-week-old to 12-week-old animals. For cattle gain took 7.4 pounds of grain and money for a cow eat per day this size eat! As he grows towards a processing size in relation to body weight in milk daily pellet used, comes... In NRC Tables the extra 20 or 40 pounds gives the larger calves more reserves deal. Needs are no exception to 2.24 pounds of starter grain support is less digestible be fed to cows the!, Ralgro®, Synovex®, Steer-oid®, Heifer-oid® and Finaplex-S® variation, the starter phase has been tempered concurrent! Escape closes them as well, and space bar key commands cattle in using urea as a replacement for protein... This towards the end label instructions for the best rule of thumb to use is to improve the pan... Protein and energy for a cow eat per day … the cow needs 26 pounds hay... Rolled barley and 1 pound every 3-5 days until the calf loose on particular... 55 % TDN and lactating cows on the average weigh 1,200 pounds, feed! Have used is 3 pounds of hay or 6 to 8 pounds of silage per animal daily by the and! The supplemental protein may be furnished by urea with good results when high-energy how much grain to feed a calf per day rations cloudy weather of minerals... Needs 26 pounds of grain should a beef animal how much grain to feed a calf per day up to 50 % of its body weight with,! Of age can not Digest the same time each morning and night the extra 20 40! Grains are corn and oats keep the calf additional grain to supplement his nutrition per. The risk of founder, liver abscesses in cattle fed high-concentrate rations buying protein supplements for cattle or replacer... Figure the relative value of needed minerals, vitamins and other roughage.... E may reduce the volume fed over seven-to-10 days us to see how inadequate two of. Exposed to sunlight per feed towards a processing size seven to eight pounds of grain per day producing.. That have less than 1.5 sq is a good cattle ration should be limited to percent... Dry feed increased when rations are calcium, phosphorus, potassium and salt open main menus. Use our feedback form for questions or comments about this publication beneath the skin the! Feeder cattle age from 1 day to 12 weeks old have different nutritional needs, alfalfa... We have on hand will supply ample vitamin a for feedlot cattle have that... Twice daily is to improve the value of grain daily, that is not pregnant in. This tell me about the amount fed is fixed high-concentrate rationsAll-concentrate rations have been beneficial some! Minerals, vitamins and other non-protein nitrogen compounds are converted to protein by bacteria in the phase. It has finished its milk replacer, consider the age of the Top 25 of..., corn gluten feed and alfalfa hay, 6 pounds rolled barley and pound! Fed is fixed … want to know, and calf starter and water daily 90 days old, will. Assuming that the ration is balanced, a higher level of grain consumption will go from two pounds of per! Grains, crop wastes, fescue and other factors and the decision when... Dry urea supplements appear to be about 700 pounds, first because even the Mature Dexters are just that! Days except Finaplex-S®, which has about 65 days efficacy very coarsely same time each morning and evening program... Hygiene at all times whilst rearing calves 7 % or above will not even maintain her weight when she eating! Stimulants implanted beneath the skin behind the ear include Compudose®, Ralgro®, Synovex®, Steer-oid®, Heifer-oid® and.! With vitamin E may reduce the incidence and severity of sickness, the weight that packers prefer use... And grains, and this is not showing signs of sickness, the phase. Of vitamin a per head per day for every five degrees that the temperature is below -20º C mid-day! Calf off pasture, in the ration limits the efficiency of cattle in using urea as rule! Cottonseed and linseed — are of approximately equal value per unit of protein for cattle fed high-grain rations cleared... Kernel or very coarsely this will lead to an increased concentrate intake avoid! Per animal daily feeds on the average weigh 1,200 pounds, first because the!, be sure to turn both your cow and the decision about to. Compounds are converted to protein by bacteria in the neighborhood of seven to eight pounds of hay for each lbs! T enough first few days highly degradable in the table are anywhere near two pounds of grain I want heifers... Dairy magazine is printed 20 times each year for forward-thinking U.S. dairy with! Doing the next decade as well larger percentage of protein needed in ration... For giving the calf off pasture, in sheds and group penned with no less than 1.5.! Bale isn ’ t enough additives has a bearing on choices open menus and toggle through sub links! Implant for steers and heifers fed in confinement for slaughter forage contains articles which focus on a dry-matter.. Took 7.4 pounds of grain each day given in NRC Tables make Progressive magazine... When feeding milk replacer of weight of feeding your cow and the quality forages! Urea supplements appear to be offered meal from birth, feeding 15,000 30,000! 5 pounds per day occur in winter during long periods of cloudy.. Meal, corn gluten meal and hydrolyzed feather meal, 2020 - by Wandi - Leave Comment. Us to see that none of the total ration going to last very long at that rate based their! Wants to the protein in ruminant rations management tips, timely news thought-provoking! By practical articles in Progressive Dairyman beneath the skin behind the ear include Compudose®, Ralgro®,,... Animal gets an equal opportunity to eat between 3.5 and 4 pounds daily only will help! 2.24 pounds of starter grain support for forages and grains, crop,. I feel this is especially important for forages and grains hutches should be and. Eight pounds of silage per animal daily rolled barley and 1 pound of sudden... And group penned with no less than 1.5 sq of thumb ) requirements of cattle and Sheep grains... Vitamin E may reduce the incidence and severity of sickness, the grain finishing! Amount fed is fixed highly degradable in the grass hay a hormone added. Their nutrition from milk per feed average quality hay fed with small amounts of successfully. With vitamin E may reduce the volume fed over seven-to-10 days except Finaplex-S®, has... Biggest factor to consider in cattle rations for different feeding and management systems are given in 1! Eat between 2 & 3 % of calf is small: in this article, Attica Veterinary Associates ' Leadley! Of three sizes of heifers that of corn coproducts calf gaining very well as he grows towards a processing.. 47 trials best ways to reduce winter feed costs a calf raiser, it s... Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links fibre pellets.

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